Last week I posed a question about how an ICMP response would pass through a Juniper SRX firewall. If you need to remind yourself what the scenario was, please take a moment to read the post ICMP Challenge Part 1, because in this post I’m going to run through the answer.
ICMP Response Primer
One of the concerns I heard expressed is that if the SRX were to NAT the source IP of the Fragmentation Needed response, then the original sender would not know to what the ICMP packet referred. That sounds logical, but when you think about it, ICMP actually relies on the fact that any device can send a response back, and for all of those responses, the only IP that the orginal sender knows about is the final destination. And so, ICMP helps out by including the header (or thereabouts) of the packet to which is it a response. Let’s look at that for a moment. Here’s the decode of an ICMP Ping Request (Type8/Code0) being sent from 22.214.171.124 to 192.168.2.19:
Note that the ICMP decode shows an Identifier and a Sequence Number which WireShark in this case decodes in both Big Endian (BE) and Little Endian (LE) formats for convenience. This particular ping packet has been sent with the Do Not Fragment (DF) bit set and 1400 bytes of data attached, and it’s about to hit a link with a physical MTU of 1000, which is clearly too small for it. Predictably, then, the interface nearest to the original sender generates an ICMP Type3/Code4 (Unreachable, Fragmentation needed but DF-bit set):
What we see in the decode is an ICMP Type3/Code4 packet sent from 126.96.36.199 back to the original source (188.8.131.52), and a note that the MTU that caused the problem was 986 (remember, physical MTU was 1000, so the protocol MTU will be 14 bytes fewer because the 14 byte Ethernet header is not included). Then nested inside that ICMP message are the IP and ICMP headers from the original packet; including the identifier and sequence number. And that’s how the original sender knows what this ICMP response is all about; it can match up the embedded information and refer it back to the packet it sent. Clever, isn’t it? And that’s how a sending system knows what to retransmit (as a smaller packet that will fit into the stated MTU) when it’s told there’s a problem upstream with MTU.
So from that we can conclude that the source IP of the ICMP response is not important, because the information the sender needs is embedded within the ICMP response. That doesn’t help us at all in answering the question, but it does at least confirm that whether the ICMP message sender’s source IP is NATted or not, it would still work.
Firewall Rules for ICMP
One of my first questions when I began looking at this issue was whether I would need to have a rule allowing ICMP Type3/Code4 outbound or not. The 5-tuple for the ICMP response will not match the existing inbound session, so why would it be allowed out? Is it a global setting to allow this traffic to pass, do I need to add a rule to allow it, or is the firewall smart enough to figure out that the ICMP response relates to an existing session flow?
The answer to this is that the Juniper SRX is smart enough to look inside the ICMP response and associate the ICMP response with the existing flow, and thus the response is allowed out without any need for further rules. In fact, I could not find any way to control this even if I wanted to; I tried adding an ICMP rule higher in the list, but presumably the association with the existing flow happens early on the process (the same way existing flows are handled) so the rule set never even gets a look in. I don’t know if I’d necessarily want to be able to block this particular ICMP response, given that it tries to stop flows from breaking; I’m all in favor of PMTUD working, and it’s considered bad form not to send these responses. For good or bad then, the ICMP response will be passed without a need for a firewall rule to allow it.
And Finally – The NAT Question
I wanted to make sure that I covered the topics above before diving into the answer, because understanding both how the firewall works and how ICMP works are critical to understanding the answer, and why it’s the way it is.
We know that the ICMP response will be sent from the interface nearest to the original source, so the ICMP source will be an RFC1918 IP address. That’s a bad thing if it’s not NATted by the firewall because standard service provider best practices should block any traffic received from a customer with an RFC1918 or bogon source, so it would never make it past the uplink to the Internet.
We also know that we don’t need a firewall rule, and that the response is automatically recognized as being associated with the existing session. I believe that it is this association that causes the firewall not to NAT the outbound ICMP response; the policies – NAT included – don’t even get looked at because of the existing session. See how I cunningly slipped the answer in there? The ICMP response is passed, does not get NATted to the public IP despite outbound NAT policies, and thus will never make it back to the source because it comes from an RFC1918 address. There is no way currently (says JTAC) to change that behavior, although I have made an Enhancement Request (ER) to add some kind of knob to make that behavior tweakable because in this example, we absolutely do want the source IP to be NATted so that it can make it back to the original sender over the Internet. Remember, the source IP address of the ICMP packet is unimportant to the functioning of the ICMP response because of the embedded information.
A Slightly Different Scenario
So what happens if you have destination NAT configured from outside to inside? That is, if the sender hits a public IP on the firewall which is then destination NATted to an internal IP? In that instance, it turns out that (presumably) because there’s NAT in place for the existing security flow, the ICMP packet is source NATted back to that public IP address. So the behavior is different because the existing flow is different and has a NAT component.
Was it worth the wait? I hope so. I find this kind of analysis interesting because it makes me challenge my assumptions about how things should, and actually do, work. I had to lab this up to be sure of the results, and I’m pleased to say that JTAC were able to replicate what I saw, which is always a relief!
What do you think; is this right behavior(s)?
(Updated 2014-02-10: Fixed numerous typos…)